However, performance needed to be under an individual’s control such as the supervisor.
Job performance can be divided into task and contextual performance. Task performance was defined the job effectiveness when perform a certain task (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). however, contextual performance was defined as part of a job which was not directly related to the work but it can help in making the organization to a better place (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993).
2.3.1 Theory Related to Job Performance
The theory that related to job performance is the Maslow’s hierarchy need theory. This Maslow theory is the most common theory that is being used by all the companies in the world.The hierarchy of needs was introduced by Maslow in 1943. Based on this theory, Maslow believe that people have their own self desire to be what they can be and what to be. A certain number of basic needs such as safety, love, food are needed by a person in order for them to be successfully.
Maslow’s hierarchy is often looked as a pyramid that has the certain level to achieve. In order to achieve the upper level, a person should achieve the bottom level first in order to go to the next level. The lowest level of this Maslow hierarchy is made up of basic needs while the higher level will be most complex and their difficulty to achieve is also high. This theory consists of five levels. First is the physiological needs. These needs are more commonly related to one’s survival and it is very important. This needs consist of food, water, sleep, clothes and even homeostasis.
Next are the security and safety needs. In this level, it starts to be a bit more complex. The primary needs in this level is known as security and safety. In this level, everyone wants to be incharge of their own life. Examples of needs at this level are the financial security, health and wellness and even safety against injury and accidents. This security and safety needs will eventually motivate people in finding a job, moving into a safer neighborhood. or even save money for future needs.
Besides that, is the level of social needs. Social needs at this level such as belonging, acceptance and even love. This level is more about the emotional relationship. Some things needed to be satisfied at this level such as family, friendships, social group, community group and even romantic attachments. This level needed to be achieved in order to avoid loneliness, depression and even anxiety. People need to be loved and cared for their family and friends and even surroundings too.
Furthermore, the fourth level in this Maslow hierarchy is the esteem needs which is also known as respect and appreciation level. After the below three levels are been achieved, this fourth level will begin to play the main role in motivating behavior of a person. Respect and appreciation can be seen when their work and accomplishment is been praised and talked proudly about. In addition, self-esteem and personal worth are very important at this stage. For example, esteem needs will be fulfilled when we participate in professional activities, become an athletic or team participation and even academic accomplishments.
The last level will be the self-actualization needs. This will be the very peak level in this Maslow of hierarchy. This level if more like ” What a man can be, he must be,” where it refers to the need of people to achieve their full potential as human beings. According to Kendra, in Maslow theory, self-actualization definition is more like “it may be loosely described as the full use of talents, capabilities and even potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves with the things that they are best at and capable of doing so”. Self actualizing people is very much as self aware where they concern about their personal growth, less concern about others’ opinion and comments and they even take this golden chance to try boost up their potential to the higher level.