The advantage enjoyed by the researcher was that the interview guides which were used enabled him to probe and record the nonverbal comments from the respondents and minimise the flaws of the results

The advantage enjoyed by the researcher was that the interview guides which were used enabled him to probe and record the nonverbal comments from the respondents and minimise the flaws of the results.
The interviews were conducted face to face. Face to face interviews allowed for optimal communication as both verbal and non-verbal communication is noted by the researcher (Alasuutari, Bickman & Brannen 2008:317). It allowed the researcher to tie the verbal and non-verbal communication for better understanding. In focus group discussions, guiding questions were also used. The interviews with the members of the NGOs were conducted by the researcher in local language for the area where the study was conducted.
Use of open-ended questions do not need a one-word answer but provide interviewees with sample opportunity to express their feelings (De Vos 2017:293). Open-ended questions allowed participants to respond in their own words (Polit & Hungler 2014:349).
3.4.2 Observations
The researcher employed both participant and non-participant observation as ways of collecting data. An observation in qualitative research is watching what is happening with an intention of gaining understanding (Bouma & Ling 2014:58). By spending time residing in the communities, the researcher wanted to see how the community members interacted during NGOs workshops and how the NGOs delivered their development services. Clarity was sought from those responsible where the researcher felt that the observations needed clarification. The researcher maintained a journal in which observations were being recorded. Informal conversations provided some insight on how the community members view the NGOs’ model of development. Participant observation provided the researcher with a platform of unearthing those things which the researcher had missed or regarded as unimportant during interviews. The data collected from observation was presented in a narrative form. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (2008) defined observation as a way of gathering data by watching behaviour, events, or noting physical characteristics in their natural setting. Hence observations can either be overt or covert. Observation as a method of data collection enabled the researcher to get data from individuals who were not in a realistic option during the survey. The researcher also enjoyed the collection of necessary data when respondents were unwilling or unable to provide data through interviews since the observation method required little from the individuals from whom data was needed.
3.4.3 Document analysis
According to McNabb (2018) secondary data is defined as information that has already been recorded which covers the already available literature relating to the subject under investigation. In this case available sources of data included NGOs research documents, newspaper, books, internet, journals and any other relevant information related to the subject matter.
Data analysis is a process of systematically applying statistical and logical techniques to describe and illustrate, condense, recap and evaluate data. Yin (2017), substantiate that this process consists of examining, categorizing, tabulation and testing evidence to address the initial proportion of the study. According to Burns ; Grove 2003:479 posit that data analysis can be mechanism for reducing and organising data to produce findings that require interpretation by the researcher. De Vos 2017:339 posit that data analysis is a challenging and a creative process characterised by an intimate relationship of the researcher with the participants and the data generated. Coffey ; Atkinson (2006:189) cite that qualitative data analysis needs to be conducted with rigour and care. In phenomenological research, the analysis begins as soon as the first data are collected. They may consist of no more than a single interview. Data from interviews and observations was grouped in relation to similarities and analysed to deduce a generalization about the responses and their correlation to the research variables. Data collected from the sources such as books, newspapers and journals was synchronised to the field data to come up with a single explanation of the research results. To analyse the data, the researcher used a strategy which involved the collection of some data, constructing initial concepts and hypotheses, test against new data, and revise concepts and hypotheses. World Health Organization, (2014) explains that this approach implied that data collection and analysis was embedded in a single process and undertaken by the same individual.
In carrying out this study, the researcher considered ethical concerns as it is articulated in the four principles of Tom Beauchamp and Jim Childress (1983) quoted by Bricki and Green (2002): autonomy which refers to respecting the rights of the individual, beneficence meaning doing good, non-maleficence meaning not doing harm and justice particularly equity.
The researcher also had a moral obligation to strictly consider the rights of the participants who were expected to provide this knowledge (Streubert Speziale ; Carpenter 2013:314). According to Streubert Speziale ; Carpenter (2013:314) the researcher considered it very important to establish trust between the participants and himself and to respect them as autonomous beings, thus enabling them to make sound decisions cited in Burns ; Grove (2003:65).
Relevant authority was sought from the Matobo Rural District Council (MRDC) so as to gain access to the district’s rural communities. The researcher also petitioned informed consent from the selected respondents before conducting the interviews. The participants were made aware of the nature of the study and have been participating willingly as Moriarty (2011) supports by noting that “researchers need to let participants know about the broad areas of their enquiry”. Data collected from the research has been held confidential and applied solely to the intended academic purposes. In addition anonymity was assured because the results do not mention the participants’ names. Ethical measures are as important in qualitative research and it include ethical conduct towards participant’s information as well as honest reporting of the results.
This chapter presented the research methodology and the design of the study. This provided the road map of the study. A detailed explanation was given on how the participants were chosen and how the data was collected. Validity, reliability and ethical issues are important elements of research and in this chapter, the researcher discussed how these were upheld. The chapter has revealed the research design and the methods which were used to collect data for the study underlining the pros and cons of the methods used. The chapter also highlighted the ethical considerations which were highly upheld in this study. This chapter further validates how the collected data is going to be analysed in chapter four so as to support the topic which attempts to answer the question of the contributions made by the rural people of Emadwaleni ward in planning and developing projects as well as what the community desire from NGOs in the development process. The findings of the study are presented in the next chapter.