Term paper report on Artificial intelligence ABSTRACT Artificial Intelligence in the modern engineering science to make machines intelligence as humans

Term paper report on
Artificial intelligence
ABSTRACT
Artificial Intelligence in the modern engineering science to make machines intelligence as humans. Artificial Intelligence has progressed tremendously over the past decade with giant companies like google, apple, Microsoft, Facebook, Tesla, Samsung etc. investing billions of dollars in in the field of AI research and development.

The four primary goal of an Artificially intelligent device is to recognize human speech, to learn on its own, to plan things on its own and to solve problems in a controlled way. The subject of intelligence in a machine is controversial but has a vast scope. The topics which contribute the most in the field of Artificial intelligence are computer science, psychology, neuro science, biology, mathematics, sociology and philosophy.

There are plenty of applications of Artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence was created out of curiosity by humans while they were working on machines it leads them to a thought that can a machine be as intelligent as people and thus the concept of machine’s intelligence was born out of nowhere. The industry is evolving every day, for now, the technology is being used in the fields like gaming, natural language processing, Machine vision technology, human voice recognition, cyber expert systems, Robotic technology and Handwritten text recognition.

INTRODUCTION
Artificial intelligence is a type of intelligence that is seen in machines, in the way the natural intelligence is displayed by humans and other animals.

Artificial intelligence was developed and founded as an academic discipline in the year 1956, and in the later years it has experienced several waves of optimism. Sir John Mc Carthy is known as the father of artificial intelligence who led the foundation of the definition of artificial intelligence as an artificial intelligent machine can possess human like capabilities to solve problems generically rather than solving it within a boundary. he did the first demonstration of an AI algorithm at Carnegie melon university.

In computer science AI research is defined as the study of intelligence given to the computers and machines. Any sort of device that perceives its situation or any query and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. The term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine imitates “cognitive” functions that are associated by the humans with other persons, such as “learning” and “problem solving”.

Artificial intelligence (AI) It is a sort of synthetic intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also an another name of the scientific field which studies and research’s how to create computers or computer software that are capable of intelligent behaviour and self-solving the queries.

HISTORY
In 5th century BC a scientist Aristotle invented the syllogistic logic, it was the first formal deductive system for reasoning.

In 16th century AD a scientist Rabbi Loewe had been marked as inventing the golem which was known as the artificial man made out of sand.

In 17th and in 18th century the first mechanical calculator which was able to perform simple calculations and a fake chess game machine.

In 19th century Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace had developed clean and simple programmable mechanical computers.

In 20th century karel kapek gifted the word with term “Robotic” as Rossum’s universal robots.

At same time Turing writes the computing machinery and intelligence and proposed a test called Turing test.

Thought we are capable of artificial intelligence but still was being appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, and have been common in fiction in movies and etc., as in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein or Rossum’s universal robots and in some movie like iron man, James bond etc.

The first work which is now being generally recognized as AI was first designed by two scientist McCullouch and pitts inn year 1943 for the formal design of Turing –complete “artificial neurons”.

The field research of AI was born at the work shop of Dartmouth College in the year 1956.

Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John Mc Carthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel are the founders and leaders for the research and development in the field of AI.
According to the author and researcher jack Clark of the Bloomberg’s, the year 2015 was the landmark for the massive progression of artificial intelligence, a number of software projects that use AI within google increased from a “sporadic usage” has been increased in 2012 to more than 2700 projects. Clark also presents about the factual data indicating that the errors rates in image processing tasks have fallen significantly since 2011 and a lot of development as has been taken place in image stabilization and optimization and identifying the type of images that are clicked and many AI based cameras are being used in the mobile phones by the companies like Huawei, Samsung etc. which suggests the user type of mode by which they can get a better pic. He attributes this increase in the field of affordable neural networks, due to a massive raise in cloud computing.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
It is a form of intelligence i.e. Synthetic intelligence (SI) is an another term of artificial intelligence which reminds us that the intelligence of machines need not be an imitation or in a way of artificial; it can be a genuine form of intelligence that can solve the queries by itself. synthetic means that which is produced by synthesis and combining parts to form a whole, combination, of a man made version of intelligence that which has arisen naturally. Therefore “synthetic intelligence” is a manmade intelligence but not a simulation or fiction.

AI is type of technology a type of computer technology (a computer system that performs some intellectual function in solving the problems and resolving queries as of humans) that is emerging day by day in our day to day life.

Emerging technology are the technologies that are perceived as capable of changing the existing state of affairs and queries. These technologies are generally new to us but these include older technologies that are still giving rise and relatively in the development in potential, such as preimplantation of genetic diagnosis and gene therapy.

AI field is said to be that:
AI is an academic discipline in the branch of knowledge. And a branch of science that deals with intelligent behaviour of computers.

TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
WEAK AI or NARROW AI: non sentient machine intelligence, that is typically focused on narrow tasks. This is a type of intelligence cannot sense things and feel. All the current existing systems which considered artificial intelligence are any sort of weak AI at most.

Voice Assistant like Siri, google assistant, Cortana and Bixby is a good example of narrow intelligence. This voice assistant operates only within a limited pre-defined range, there is no sort of genuine intelligence, no self-awareness, no life in this.
STRONG AI /ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE: In this type of intelligence the machine will be able to apply intelligence to any sort of problems, rather than just in one specific problem, typically it means that “at least as smart as a typical human”. It’s future potential leads to the creation of technological singularity, and which may constitute a global catastrophic risk and leads to the risk to human life.

SUPER INTELLIGENCE: The artificial intelligence that is far incomparable or outstanding part while compared to the brightest and most gifted human minds. Due to the rapid and intellectual self – improvement, so superintelligence is expected to become a rapid outcome of creating artificial general intelligence by itself.

BRANCHES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
BY APPROACH
SYMBOLIC AI – when the access of digital computers became possible in the middle 1950s, AI research has begun to explore the possibilities that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation that is a system of computer algebra.

SUB – SYMBOLIC
It was used in early cybernetics and brain simulation
It was used in Behaviour based Artificial intelligence
It is used Subsumption architecture of robotics which refers to the symbolic substitution method of object oriented programming etc.

STASTICAL AI
APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Artificial intelligence is used in various fields in our day to day life such as artificial creativity, artificial life such as robotic arms, eyes etc., automated schedule planning and reminding devices such as Alexa, google home which are responsible for automated reasoning, automation, and automatic target recognition in the fields of military to detect the incoming threats, and biologically inspired computing.

It is also used in computer audition for speech recognition which can be as a password and speaker recognition in the systems. and in computer vision for the best processing, optimization and stabilization of images, intelligent word correction and recognition, object and face recognition which is now a day is being used in the smart phones for the purpose of facial recognition which used as password to unlock the devices, optical mark recognition i.e. handwriting recognition of a person for enhancing security, optical character recognition that is automatic number plate recognition which is used by the cops to identify the details of the vehicle or a person using his any ID.

And now a days AI is also used in various fields like gaming, knowledge management, natural language processing, pattern recognition, robotics, virtual intelligence and virtual reality and etc.

INTEGRATED AI SYSTEMS and AI PROJECTS
AIBO: it is a Sony’s robot dog and its first model was released in 1999. It integrates vision, hearing and motor skills. It was designed as a vision of robotic pet.

ASIMO – it is a humanoid robot developed by Honda in the 2000 and it is present still now, it is capable of walking, running, recognizing through pedestrian traffic, climbing stairs, recognizing speech commands given by the people and it is capable of recognizing the faces of specific individuals.

COG – it is AI based M.I.T. humanoid robot project started in 1994 under the direction of Rodney Brooks.it is capable of learning, hearing, voice recognition.it was given the intelligence of a six months old baby.

QRIO – it is a Sony’s version of a humanoid robot created in 2003. It is a bipedal humanoid robot which is created for the purpose of entertainment.

TOPIO, TOSY’s is a bipedal humanoid robot that is designed to play table tennis with humans. It was developed by a Vietnam robot firm in the year 2007.

WATSON – It is a AI based computer developed by IBM in the year 2011. it is a question answering machine which is capable of answering our question that are posted in our natural language.

Mind pixel it is a AI based web project developed in between the year 2000-2005. it is a human valued data base of true or false which is under development
The technologies employed on the bases of AI are natural language processing which is used in speech recognition which is discussed in the above topic, information retrieval which is used by the cyber teams and cops etc., knowledge representation, automated reasoning it is such as Alexa or google home which we discussed it in above session, machine learning.

Now a day all the voice assistant and personal assistant like Amazon Alexa, Briana, Cortana, Google Assistant, Google Home, Siri, Bixby are all developed under AI and works on the technology based on weak or narrow artificial intelligence.

AI DEVELOPMENT
AI Algorithms it is an open source AI development tool some of them are:
Open Air
Open Cog
Open IRIS
Rapid Miner
Tensor Flow
AI PROJECTS
Automated Mathematician it is AI based project which was developed in the year 1977 to solve the problems of the maths.

Allen Robot it was designed by Rodney brooks which was subsumption architecture.

Open mind common sense it is project which was developed in the year 1999
Blue brain project it was an attempt to create a synthetic brain by reverse – engineering of a mammalian brain to the molecular level which was started in the year 2005 and researches are going on.

Google deep mind it is an on-going AI project by google started in 2011. Which is a AI based program which contains the potential of a human
Human brain project it was started in the year 2013 with aim of creating an artificial human brain or in simple a synthetic brain researches are going on
AI SAFETY
We can expect an Existential risk from advanced artificial intelligence in detail
Friendly AI is an AI that is designed not to harm humans but to help us, so we have to prevent unfriendly AI from being developed
AI takeover: the point at which humans are no longer the dominant form of intelligence on earth and machine intelligence. Then it leads to the existence of the human life and rapid increase of the robots and AI. which is global catastrophic risk. Due to the super intelligence which leads to an intelligence explosion due to recursive self-improvement and self-application.

And if it happens it would become very difficult task to us to stop them because only few are capable of stopping such an intelligence
So we have to take certain precautions so that we may not come through this type of situation.

FUTURE WITH AI
Artificial general intelligence is an artificial intelligence that may matches or exceeds human intelligence that is
Due to super intelligence the machines are able to develop them sleeves and improve them sleeves more and more intelligent which may become an obstacle to the human life.

But also the AI can become a family member in our day to day for example google assistant which manages all the tasks of our home and gives all the information that is required to us and even talks with us and also entertains us.

Advantages
With the help of AI humans may be enhanced, either by efforts of AI or by merging with it that is
Transhumanism – that is semi-human like a person with robotic arms or eyes that is we can fix the patients who lost their arms or any body parts due any kind of disaster which leads to the philosophy of human transformation
Post humanism – people may survive, but not be recognizable in comparison to present modern – day humans.

Cyborgs it is a being with both organic and bio mechatronic body parts.
Mind uploading it is whole brain emulation, that is mind uploading or brain uploading it is a hypothetical futuristic process in which we can insert the part of synthetic intelligence in our brains by which one can insert information externally into the brain. But the brain works as normally as ordinary brain and having a conscious mind.

Further AI design elements
Selection of an Action is a way of characterizing the most basic problem of intelligent systems. so that it can solve many problems rather than concentrating on a single problem.

Affective computing is a part of AI leads to the development of computer systems, software’s and devices that can recognize, repeat, process, and simulate human affects.

AI box it is a hypothetical isolated computer hardware system that is used to detect possibly dangerous artificial intelligence, or AI, and which is kept in a totally controlled “virtual prison” and not allowed to manipulate the events that are taking place in the external world.

Common-sense reasoning is one of the branches of artificial intelligence(AI) that is concentrated on simulating the human ability so that to make precautions, assumptions and solution about the type of ordinary situational problems they are encounter every day.

Autonomic computing refers to the self – managing system of a distributed computing devices, adapting to unpredictable changes while hiding complexity of a program to operators and users.
Chabot
Intelligent controls are required to control techniques that use various artificial intelligent computing approaches like neutral networks, voice assistant’s, fuzzy logic, machine learning, evolutionary computation and genetic algorithms, reasoning –answering systems and AI used in management.

And also it requires development in the fields like situated AI, embodied agent, soft computing, rule based system, perceptual computing, etc.

CONCLUSION
We are on verge of creating the most innovating thing in our history. the artificial intelligence is a top notch topic in the field of science and technology. face book’s CEO Mark Zuckerberg has also initiated a lot of projects towards artificial intelligence including a personal assistant chat bot like that of Iron man movie. Recently there was news that some of the robots were speaking a different language and possibly got malfunctioned, however, when the engineers monitored them they came out of a conclusion that the machines have developed a language of their own and were communicating effectively. later they were shut down.

So there are hundreds of possibilities about artificial intelligence and where we will be standing in the coming years keeping in mind that we have just started and there is a long way to go. artificial intelligence can change our lives completely with their super intelligence every work would be easy to perform, and a major chain of technology will follow after we achieve the fundamental of strong AI. artificial intelligence has its risks and benefits and researchers, scientists and engineers are trying their best to tackle the risks of intelligent devices.

A major revolution is undertaking and we a part of it. it is our duty to contribute towards such innovating technology as well. artificial intelligence will be developing day by day which is beneficial to the society and but sometimes it may be dangerous to the society. so at the time of creation steps to be taken so that we can avoid any disasters in the future and see no one should use it in a wrong way.