Question 1

Question 1 (Answer)

As a s cie ntis t w ho w ork s in th e fie ld o f in te llig ent a gents a nd r o botic s, th e

fir s t th in g th at c o m es to t h e m in d is th at w hate ve r th e s ce nario is , th ey w ill

do th ere w ork g enuin ely a n d n ot fo r m on ey o r a ny lu rin g b y s o m e o ne.

Scie ntis ts a re s u ch b re e d, w e c a n s a y th at th ey h ave th eir o w n w ay o f

th in kin g a nd m ostly th ey th in k a bo ut c re a tin g n ew th in gs w hic h c a n b rin g a

re vo lu tio n a nd th eir m ain m otiv e is to s e rv e fo r s o m e o ne o r in s o m e fie ld

and n ot m oney is e ve ry th in g fo r th em . S in ce h ere th e s ce nario is to d eve lo p

a r o bot w it h fr e e w il l a s th e g ove rn m en t a re r a cin g fo r th is a nd th is is fo r

th eir o w n c o untr y o fc o urs e . A ls o r o b ots lik e s o phie a re a lr e ady d eve lo ped

so th ere m ust b e s o m eth in g n ew w hic h c a n le ad th e c o untr y in th e

dom in ant c o untr ie s in th e w orld . N ow , c re a tin g th e fir s t r o b ot w it h tr u e fr e e

will w ill o bvio usly b e a m ore th an g re a t a ch ie ve m en t fo r th e s cie ntis t a s w ell

as fo r th e c o untr y . D eve lo pin g a tr u e fr e e w ill r o b ot w ill o bvio usly n ot b e a

easy ta sk to d o, fo r w hic h s cie ntis ts w ill h ave to g iv e th ere m an y d ays a nd

nig hts c o ntr ib utio ns a nd m ay b e it w ill ta ke y e ars to d o s o , w hic h w ill a t la st

be a g re at a ch ie ve m ent. B ut if a g ove rn m en t a gency o f m y c o untr y

appro ach es m e to g iv e m e s u ch s e cre t p ro je ct to d eve lo p s u ch a r o bot a nd

offe rs m e a g re at d ea l if i s u cce ed , fir s t o f a ll i w ould r a th er ta ke th at p ro je ct

not fo r th e fo rtu ne fo r m yse lf o r fo r m y u pco m in g g enera tio n b ut i w ill ta ke

th at p ro je ct b eca use i b elie ve in m yse lf th at i c a n m ake th is p ro je ct

su cce ssfu l a s i b elie ve t h a t a r o bot w it h tr u e fr e e w ill c a n b e d eve lo ped

usin g d if fe re nt A I a lg orit h m s a n d m an y o th er te ch niq ues w hic h i h ave le arn t

fo r th ese m any y e ars a s w ell m y e xp erie nce w ill b e a p lu s p oin t. If th ere is a

fe elin g th at y o u c a nno t s u cce ssfu lly c o m ple te th at p ro je ct th en r a th er r e je ct

th at p ro je ct in ste ad o f a cce p tin g th at p ro je ct ju st fo r m on ey y o u w ill b e

gettin g fo r th ose a gen cie s. If th ere is a ny s ce nario th at y o u a re b ein g lu re d,

yo u s h ould n ot fa ll f o r t h a t a s th ose s u ch th in gs le ads u s to n o w ere a nd

yo u w ill d eeply r e gre t fr o m in sid e o f y o ur h eart th at b ein g a s cie ntis t y o u d o

su ch th in gs a nd y o u h e art a nd m in d w on’t a llo w y o u to d o s u ch a ctiv it y

whic h is n ot b enefic ia l fo r y o u a nd y o ur c o untr y a s w ell.

Bein g a s cie ntis t i b e lie ve in m yse lf th at y e s i c a n d eve lo p th is k in d o f

ro bot b eca use w hile m akin g th is r o b ot th ere w ill a lw ays b e o ne th in g

ru nnin g in m y m in d w ho le tim e th at y e s i w ill m ake th is p ro je ct a nd i w ill b e

su cce ssfu l w hic h w il l b e h elp fu l fo r m y c o untr y , m y c o untr y p eople , th e

whole w orld a nd m yse lf . A s w e k n o w th at a tr u e fr e e w ill r o b ot c a n b e

co m pare d to a h um an b ein g b y th eir in te lle ctu alit y a nd th e w ay th ey

perfo rm th e ta sk s im ila r to h um an b ein g. W e c a n s e e S ophie is o ne o f th e

best e xa m ple o f c o m ple tio n o f a p ro je ct b ase d o n A I a nd d if fe re nt

te ch niq ues a nd a lg orit h m s, if s u ch r o b ots c a n b e m ad e th an w hy n ot a tr u e

fr e e w ill r o bot c a n b e m ade. T he re a re m an y o th er in ve ntio ns to o w hic h

sh ow s th e h ard w ork o f m an y s cie ntis ts a nd n o s cie ntis t m ade th ese

pro je cts fo r m oney b ut th ey m ade it fo r th e fu tu re a s th e te ch nolo gy is

gro w in g a nd th ey w an t th eir c o un tr y a nd th em se lf to g ro w in th at fie ld to o,

fo r w hic h th ey a lw ays t h o ught o f e ve ry o ne’s b ette rm ent a nd n ot fo r m akin g

money b y d oin g a ll s u ch p ro je cts . G ove rn m en t a gencie s a ls o w ork fo r th eir

co untr y a nd y e s th ey a ls o t h in k fo r th eir c o untr y to g ro w in th e fie ld o f

te ch nolo gy s o it s fin e to a cce pt th e p ro je ct fo r th em b eca use y o u b elie ve in

yo urs e lf a nd n eit h er y o u s h ould d o th is fo r m on ey n or fo r a ny o nes lu rin g if

yo u fe el th at if th e p ro je ct m ig ht n ot w ork b ut it ‘s fin e th at i a m g ettin g

money w heth er th e p ro je ct fa ils o r g oes to h ell. In m y c a se th is w ill n ot b e

my c o nce rn a nd r a th e r i w il l d o th is p ro je ct fo r w hate ve r i s a id i lik e a s

above .

Fin ally , th ere a re m any p eo ple a n d th e w ay e ve ry o ne th in k is v e ry

much d if fe re nt a nd e ve ry t h in g d epends o n th e n atu re o f th e h um an b ein g

as n o h um an b ein g h a ve s a m e n atu re . T here m ig ht b e s o m e p ers o n w ho

will d o ju st o pposit e o f w hat i m en tio ned b ut y e s if y o u a re s u ch a n

educa te d p ers o n a nd b ein g a s cie ntis t, th ese n egativ e th in gs r a re ly o r

neve r c o m es to o ne ‘s m in d. D epe ndin g o n w hat th e n atu re o f h um an b ein g

is o ne o f th e m ost im porta nt p art in d oin g a ny k in d o f w ork w heth er it is a

jo b fo r s o m eone, o r fo r t h e m se lv e s, o r fo r th e n atio n a nd a ny o th er s u ch

th in gs a nd th e m ain th in g is y o u fe el p osit iv e a lw ays.

Question 2 (Answer)

Any c o m puta tio n o n a T urin g m ach in e c o uld b e e m ula te d b y a

pro ductio n s yste m a nd v ic e v e rs a , b y th is lin e w e fa ir ly u nders ta nd th at th e

pro ble m w hic h c a n b e s o lv e d b y tu rin g m ach in e c a n a ls o b e s o lv e d b y th e

pro ductio n s yste m a nd th e p ro ble m w hic h c a n b e s o lv e d b y p ro ductio n

syste m c a n b e s o lv e d b y tu rin g m ach in e. A ls o w e k n ow v e ry w ell th at th e

pro ce dure o f s o lv in g s a m e p ro b le m in b oth o f th ese m ach in es a re d if fe re nt.

Basic a lly a p ro ductio n s yste m is a s p ecia l k in d o f d is cre te d yn am ic a l

syste m th at c o nsis ts o f th re e c o m po nents . O ne is th e g lo bal d ata base ,

whic h c o m pris e s th e d a ta o f th e s yste m . A no th er is th e s e t o f p ro ductio n

ru le s, th e o pera tio ns o f th e s yste m th at ta ke it fr o m s ta te to s ta te . F in ally ,

th e c o ntr o l s tr u ctu re a cts a s t h e e xe cu tiv e o f th e p ro d uctio n s yste m ,

dete rm in in g w hic h p ro ductio n r u le w ill fir e n ext. W here a s tu rin g m ach in e is

co m pose d o f a ta pe, a r e ad-w rit e h ead, a nd a fin it e -s ta te m ach in e.

Pro ductio n s yste m c a n c o m pris e o f m an y d if fe re nt e xa m ple s a nd o ne

of w hic h is b y ta kin g a n e xa m ple fo r a s o lu tio n o f x is a s e le cte d r e la tio n r

betw een a n on e m pty s e t o f s o lu tio n g oals G a nd a n on e m pty s e t o f

so lu tio n p ath P th at e ach o f w hic h fo rm s a fu nctio n p (x ,g ), p E P a nd g E G .

Acco rd in g to fig ure 1 , th e c o g nit iv e p ro ce ss o f p ro b le m s o lv in g c a n b e d one

as:-

1) T o d efin e th e p ro ble m b y id entif y in g th e o bje cts a nd a ttr ib ute s.

2) T o s e arc h s o lu tio n g oals a n d p ath s b y p ara lle ly s e arc h in g fo r p ossib le

g oals G a nd p ath P fo r th e s o lu tio ns.

3) T o g enera te a s o lu tio n a cco rd in g to e quatio n 1 .

4) T o s e le ct s u it a ble s o lu tio ns a nd p ossib le s o lu tio ns fo r r a s o bta in ed

above .

5) T o r e pre se nt p ro ble m s o lv in g r e su lt b y in co rp o ra tin g a nd m em oriz in g th e

so lu tio n o f r .

So, h ere is th e p ro ble m s o lv e d b y m od elin g o f c o gnit iv e p ro ce ss in

sym bolic A I a nd a ls o th e s o lu tio n fo r th e g iv e n p ro b le m is s h ow n. In th e

flo w ch art m entio ned a bove , it c le arly s h ow s h ow a p ro ble m is s o lv e d a nd

what c o ndit io ns a nd c o nstr a in ts a re th ere to s o lv e th e p artic u la r p ro ble m

via m odelin g o f c o gnit iv e p ro ce ss in s ym bo lic A I. In p ro ble m s o lv in g, th e

re pre se nta tio n o f th e p ro ble m is c ru cia l. P ro ble m r e p re se nta tio n in clu des a

descrip tio n o f th e g iv e n s it u atio n, p re d efin ed o pera to rs fo r c h angin g th e

sit u atio n, a nd a sse ssm ent c rit e ria to d ete rm in e w heth er th e g oal h as b een

ach ie ve d. In m ost p ro ble m s o f in te re st, th e p ro b le m s p ace c a n b e v e ry

la rg e to b e s e arc h ed e xh austiv e ly .T his p ro b le m c a n a ls o b e s o lv e d u sin g

tu rin g m ach in e b ut t h e p ro ce d ure a nd w ay o f s o lv in g th e p ro b le m w ill to ta lly

dif fe r a nd th e w ay a bo ve m en tio ned fo r tu rin g m ach in e w ill b e u se d to s o lv e

th is p ro ble m .

Question 3 (Answer)

Connectio nis m is th e n am e fo r th e c o m pu te r m od elin g a ppro ach to

in fo rm atio n p ro ce ss in g b ase d o n th e d esig n o r a rc h it e ctu re o f th e b ra in . N ot

th e a rc h it e ctu re o f th e
? ?whole b ra in . R ath er, b eca use n euro ns a re th e b asic

in fo rm atio n p ro ce ss in g s tr u ctu re s in th e b ra in , a nd e ve ry s o rt o f in fo rm atio n

th e b ra in p ro ce sse s o ccu rs in n e tw ork s o f in te rc o n necte d n euro ns,

co nnectio nis t c o m pute r m ode ls a re b ase d o n h ow c o m pu ta tio n o ccu rs in

neura l n etw ork s. B asic a ll y , c o n nectio nis m c a n b e th ought o f a s th e b ra in

model o f c o gnit io n.C on nectio n is m a re a ls o s o m etim es r e fe rr e d to a s 'n eura l

netw ork s' o r 'a rtif ic ia l n eu ra l n etw ork s'. T he c e ntr a l c o nnectio nis t p rin cip le is

th at m enta l p henom en a c a n b e d escrib ed b y in te rc o nnecte d n etw ork s o f

sim ple a nd o fte n u n if o rm u nit s . T he fo rm o f th e c o nnectio ns a nd th e u nit s

ca n v a ry fr o m m odel t o m odel. F or e xa m ple , u nit s in th e n etw ork c o uld

re pre se nt
? ?neuro ns a nd t h e c o nnectio ns c o uld r e p re se nt
? ?syn apse s, a s in t h e

hum an b ra in . O fte n, th ese c o m e in th e fo rm o f h ig hly in te rc o nnecte d,

neuro n-lik e p ro ce ssin g u n it s . T here is n o s h arp d iv id in g lin e b etw een

co nnectio nis m a nd c o m puta tio nal n euro scie nce , b ut c o nnectio nis ts te nd

more o fte n to a bstr a ct a w ay fr o m th e s p ecif ic d eta ils o f n eura l fu nctio nin g

to fo cu s o n h ig h-le ve l c o gn it iv e p ro ce sse s.

Connectio nis m w as b a se d o n
? ? asso cia tio n , m ostly c la im in g th at

ele m ents o r id eas b e co m e a sso cia te d w it h o ne a noth er th ro ugh e xp erie nce

and th at c o m ple x id e as c a n b e e xp la in ed th ro u gh a s e t o f s im ple r u le s. B ut

co nnectio nis m fu rth er e xp an ded th ese a ssu m ptio ns a nd in tr o duce d id eas

lik e d is tr ib ute d r e pre se nta tio n a n d s u perv is e d le arn in g
? ?
and s h ould n o t b e

co nfu se d w it h a sso cia tio nis m . F urth er, it g ave r is e to C onnectio nis t M odels

and A rtif ic ia l N eura l N etw ork . C on nectio nis t m od els , a ls o k n ow n a s P ara lle l

Dis tr ib ute d P ro ce ssin g ( P D P) m odels , a re a c la ss o f c o m puta tio nal m odels

ofte n u se d to m odel a sp ects o f h u m an p erc e p tio n, c o gnit io n, a nd

behavio ur, th e le arn in g p ro ce sse s u nderly in g s u ch b ehavio ur, a nd th e

sto ra ge a nd r e tr ie va l o f in fo rm atio n fr o m m em ory .T he a ppro ach e m bodie s

a p artic u la r p ers p ectiv e in c o gnit iv e s cie nce , o ne th at is b ase d o n th e id ea

th at o ur u nders ta ndin g o f b ehavio ur a nd o f m en ta l s ta te s s h ould b e

in fo rm ed a nd c o nstr a in e d b y o ur k n ow le dge o f th e n eura l p ro ce sse s th at

underp in c o gnit io n. C onn ectio nis t m od els ta ke in sp ir a tio n fr o m th e m anner

in w hic h in fo rm atio n p ro ce ssin g o ccu rs in th e b ra in . P ro ce ssin g in vo lv e s

th e p ro pagatio n o f a ctiv a tio n a m on g s im ple u nit s ( a rtif ic ia l n euro ns)

org aniz e d in n etw ork s, th at is , li n ke d to e ach o th er th ro u gh w eig hte d

co nnectio ns r e pre se ntin g s yn apse s o r g ro u ps th ere o f. E ach u nit th en

tr a nsm it s it s a ctiv a tio n le ve l to o th er u nit s in th e n etw ork b y m eans o f it s

co nnectio ns to th ose u nit s . T he a ctiv a tio n fu nctio n, th at is , th e fu nctio n th at

describ es h ow e ach u n it c o m pu te s it s a ctiv a tio n b ase d o n it s in puts , m ay

be a s im ple lin ear fu n ctio n.

Where as A rtif ic ia l n e ura l n etw ork s is a c o m pu ta tio nal m odel b ase d o n

th e s tr u ctu re a nd fu nctio ns o f b io lo gic a l n eura l n etw ork s. In fo rm atio n th at

flo w s th ro ugh th e n etw ork a ffe cts th e s tr u ctu re o f th e A N N b eca use a

neura l n etw ork c h an ges – o r le a rn s, in a s e nse – b ase d o n th at in put a nd

outp ut. A N Ns a re c o n sid ere d n o nlin ear s ta tis tic a l d ata m od elin g to ols

where th e c o m ple x r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een in puts a nd o utp uts a re m odele d

or p atte rn s a re fo und. T he y a re th e fo undatio ns o f
? ?AI a nd s o lv e p ro ble m s

th at w ould p ro ve im po ssib le o r d if fic u lt b y h um an o r s ta tis tic a l s ta ndard s.

AN N h ave s e lf – le arn in g c a pab ilit ie s th at e nable th em to p ro d uce b ette r

re su lt s a s m ore d ata b eco m e a va ila ble . A rtif ic ia l n eura l n etw ork s a re b uilt

lik e th e h um an b ra in , w it h n euro n n ode in te rc o n necte d lik e a w eb. T he

hum an b ra in h as h u ndre ds o f b il lio ns o f c e lls c a lle d n euro ns. E ach n euro n

is m ade u p o f a c e ll b o dy th at is r e sp onsib le fo r p ro ce ssin g in fo rm atio n b y

ca rry in g in fo rm atio n t o w ard s in puts a nd a w ay o utp uts fr o m th e b ra in .

Eve ry a sp ect o f th ese th re e p ara m ete rs a re c o nnecte d to e ach o th er

and a lw ays b e c o m pare d w it h t h e h um an b ra in s. A s w e ta lk e d a bout

co nnectio nis m a nd t h e c o n ce pts o f it g ave r is e to th e c o nnectio nis t m odel

wit h a lm ost th e s a m e c o nce pt w he re a s a rtif ic ia l n eura l n etw ork h ave

dif fe re nt p ro pertie s t o d e al w it h .