CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review is ordinal process that involves the determination of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic interest (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009, p.38). Each of the contents of the literature is focused on the specific nature of the relevant literature that relates to this study.
This chapter contains the reviews of secondary data that researchers have collected from journals, articles and book. The reviews are summarized after some referral from the past studies and are related to the motivation models. The formulation of hypothesis is based on the relationship between independent variables (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and dependent variables (job performance).
2.1 Concept of Motivation to Learn
In general, the word motivation is very powerful yet can sometimes be tricky too. At times, it would be really easy to get motivated and could find ourselves wrapped up all the excitement. However, it can also be the most difficult thing to achieve on how to motivate yourself.
However what is motivation to learn? How to define it? The phrase motivation to learn can be divided into two components which is motivation and learning. The word motivation only can be known as a persistence, direction or even an amount of effort that may be expanded into an individual so that he or she could achieve their particular objectives. (Blanchard & Thacker, 2007). Besides that, leaning can be determined using two component which are human cognitive and behavioral perspective. Cognitive theories have explained learning as relatively permanent changes in cognitive occurring as a result of experiences. Behavior theories also have defined that leaning as relatively a permanent changes in behavior in response to a stimulus or set of stimuli. (Noe,1986: 736-170). All the above, will directly or indirectly affect the individual who has a clear goal, high self-efficacy and even who puts a high value on outcomes.
Motivation to learn also related to goal orientated. The way an employee try to bring themselves to learn new task or skills within a certain situation is a very strong indicator of their performance and engagement. An employee who wants to master in new field, department or even new skills will eventually use more effective learning strategies compared to another employee who is ego orientated. For example, an employee will invest his effort and time to master the HR department because he or she really interested in the HR field and the employee will even ask how to do this ? how to do that? why should do that?. This will make them explore even better and have a critical thinking.
Besides that, motivation to learn can strive for goals and the willpower as well. An employee needs encouragement and feedback in order for them to develop their willpower. The purpose and the possible solution plans should be the main thing before an employee try to learn the new task or skills. This is because knowledge is the main item needed to make any effective decisions which are persist in goal striving stage. In this way, employees can think and judge which strategies will be best for them to take and which one will be more useful in order to achieve the self-goals and also the organization goals.
2.1.1 Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation is a motivation that involves the engaging in a person behavior because it is personally rewarding, they will also perform the task for their own satisfaction rather than the external reward. This theory also can be defined as the internal motivation for the employees or trainees. Examples of action for this motivation include: solving a word puzzle because it is more fun and challenging and even exciting, participating in a sport because you find the activity more enjoyable. In this way, we can say that a person’s behavior can be motivated by their own internal desire to participate in any activity for its own sake.
Besides that, through this intrinsic motivation, people will try to obtain their motivation in itself for work very well. This is because intrinsic motivation is more on self-satisfaction. There are five aspects of intrinsic motivation which are more into challenging rather than any easy work, a way to satisfy their own interest and curiosity rather than pleasing others, always independent mastery attempts than dependent on others, independent judgment and always prefer internal criteria for success and failure rather than external criteria. Intrinsic motivation is also a highly desired form of incentive that shows up from a person’s self-satisfaction or pleasure in performing their particular task and even can be directly or indirectly affect the employee job performance. This is because for an employee to do their work or to fulfill their satisfaction, they need some spirit and satisfaction in order to improve their job performance.
2.1.2 Extrinsic motivation
According to Kendra Cherry (2018), extrinsic motivation occurs when a person only will perform a task in a motive of receiving the rewards or avoid punishment. Extrinsic motivation is also more to external reward to an employee. This is called in such way because it can boost up the employee and eventually gives them the spirit for them to be motivated. This motivation typically has been characterized as a pale and impoverished form of motivation. The classical case of extrinsic motivation is that one feels externally propel with the action and it can also be called as self-endorsed. Whenever a person is motivated by the external factors such as money, praise, competition and even threat or punishment, it is wholly considered as extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is been carry out in order to increase the productivity of an organization or even get to create a better learning environment for all the employees. This motivation also helps to increase individual benefits. However, there is one disadvantage which is everyone has been spending their whole life by chasing rewards and pride at work and then they will eventually regret what they have missed in their life.
External rewards which are the extrinsic motivation can also be such a source of feedback where they know until to what extent they have achieved their goals and how their performance have affected and achieved to a deserving standard. In many cases, if they are able to satisfy their needs and satisfaction, the employee are extrinsically motivation especially through monetary compensation. In such way, we can say that this motivation directly helps to increase the job performance of an employee because each of the people needs the reward for the job that they have done well and done it in a certain time period.
2.1.3 Theory Related to Motivation
The theory that is related to motivation is the Herzberg motivation theory. This theory is been developed by Fredrick Herzberg (1959) who was an American psychologist where he describes the human motivation. The word motivation acts as a reference that guides the trainee thinking, feeling and action will become the subject. This Herzberg’s findings have shown that there are some characteristics of job that can lead to a job satisfaction and even otherwise too. So for example, factors for satisfaction such as achievement, recognition, responsibility can eventually lead to satisfaction which can lastly relate to job performance.
In this Herzberg motivation theory, there are two factors involved which are the motivator factors and hygiene factors. Motivator factors were needed in order to motivate the employee to perform well and give their very best in any work they do, however, the hygiene factors more needed to make sure that the employees are not dissatisfied where it may affect the job performance of an organization. Motivators satisfaction will be satisfied if their self achievement is successfully achieved. However, the lack of motivators can literally lead basis of complaint and concern in anyways if hygiene factors is been concentrated more than they suppose to be.
2.2 Concept of Supervisory Support
Supervisory support can be defined to where the leaders in an organization value and appreciate their employees’ work, contributions and even they also care about their well being. In a simple word, we can say that the leader with a higher supervisory support is the one who will care, hear, and even guide and value their employees’ needs and well being. Even it is very easy to hear and see but it eventually becomes the hardest part to be done when an employee is being promoted to a supervisor and he or she have to start doing all those things in order to increase the employee’s job performance in the organization.
Supervisory support will be more effective if the supervisor is very supportive and cared and valued their employees. This kind of supervisor will make a lot of differences in the employees’ everyday work environment. For example, when an employee entered work and the supervisor wished for their day to be good and support them, the whole day the employee mood will be good even with a lot of workloads. Supervisor plays an important role the employees’ life. Strong supervisor support can help to improve and change the quality of employment to best and better ones. This support also associated with job satisfaction where it leads to job performance, perceptions of a better fit the employee and organization and lastly even helps to reduce the employee turnover which is very common in many cases these days.
2.2.1 Theory Related in the Supervisory Support
The theory that related to supervisory support is the organization support theory. The organization objectives, goals, and even intentions are related to the action of the supervisor. According to Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger (2002), organization support theory also supposes that to determine the increase in work effort is affect from the organization’s concentration on reward, employee develop worldwide beliefs concerning the maximization to which their organization cares about other’s contributions and also well being (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986; Shore & Shore, 1995).
Supervisor roles are very important as the supervisor can help to increase the job performance of an employee with the help of motivation too. Supervisors need to have knowledge and skills in the particular areas such as planning, budgeting, organizing and even developing and evaluating human resources programs. This is because the supervisor is the first person that an employee will find in order to gain information for that particular area that they work on. Besides that, the supervisor also need to provide encouragement and support to their employee in order for them to build motivation among themselves and it can eventually related to satisfaction and lastly job performance.
For an organization to run smoothly and succeed fully, the supervisor needs to use their skills and knowledge to empower their employees. Furthermore, the supervisor will evaluate their employees by giving feedback on what they are doing right, how to improve it to give better results and also can give some suggestions on how to settle the work in a short period of time but with best results as well. Every word by the supervisor is actually a small motivation that has been given to the employees. Supervisor also is there to give negative and positive reinforcement when needs and they even use motivation theories to empower their employees.
2.3 Concept of Job Performance
According to Business Dictionary, the definition of job performance is the activity that related to work and also how it is been done. This job performance has been the most important dependent variables and has been studies for a long decade. Performance is a multidimensional concept.
According to Campbell, performance is known as a behavior. It is something that ie been done by employees. Performance and outcomes have some differences between them. Outcomes are more about the individual performance results and it also results from some other influences. Performance is more about making decisions or even giving a good answers for a particular actions.