1 Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals
The anatomy and physiology of the human body is important when correctly moving and positioning individuals. The spinal column is made up of individual bones called vertebrae. The spinal column is made up of individual bones called vertebrae. Muscles work by the fibres they contain contracting; this makes the muscle shorten. When the muscle shortens it pulls on the tendon and then on the bone to which it is attached. Muscles are connected to bones by tendons. A ligament connects bone to support joints. Bones in limbs are covered with tissue. When mobility is reduced, muscles may become floppy and movement can become slower and more difficult. However if muscles are used more regularly they will move more easily and remain firm. It is important to remember that muscles can only move with the bines at the joint, as far as the joint allows when using moving and handling on an individual. By trying to extend these joints further will caused damage to the joint. This can become very painful for the person. Impulses are sent to the muscles from nerve fibres that run though the body enabling the muscles to contract and relax. Poor moving and handling techniques can damage these delicate nerve fibres. When an individual is moved and positioned it is important this happens smoothly. Sudden movements or pulling in any direction of an individual’s limbs or body can cause pulled muscles or tear tendons which can cause a lot of pain. Individuals must never be dragged when being moved as this can cause joints to over stretch and then sprain the ligaments. Putting pressure on an individual’s hand or arm when they are moving from one position to another can cause a bone to fracture. Fractures can also happen if there is an accident with for example equipment like a hoist and this falls onto the individual when moving/positioning them or using the wrong sling size and the individual falls out.
2 Describe the impact of specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual
Working with individuals with different conditions affects how we support them to move and change positions. Person with dementia can be confused and might not understand what we are saying. When we are supporting them to move, we have to show the individual by our actions and take time t o do this. Individuals with arthritis may be in a lot of pain and moving may be uncomfortable, that’s why we have to be supported to move them gently. An individual that has had a stroke might have one arm or leg stronger than the other so this needs to be taken into account when weight bearing or moving so as to avoid putting pressure on the weak side. More reassurance and explanations about the move and what is around them may be needed with an individual who is blind as they cannot see.
Be able to minimise risk before moving and positioning individuals
4 Describe actions to take in relation to identified risks
After risks have been identified on a risk assessment form, risk control measures will be put in place to minimise the risk of harm. For example, it may be identified that the care worker is at risk of back
injury from adopting an awkward position such as twisting or bending while assisting somebody to stand. This risk could be removed or minimised by: using a stand aid; ensuring there is sufficient space to undertake the activity; encouraging the person to do as much for themselves as possible; ensuring all care staff supporting the person have received moving and handling training, so they are aware of the correct techni